Climate change in East Africa can potentially have far-reaching consequences for the agriculture sector, management of natural resources and food security. Many farming systems in Africa are currently highly vulnerable to climate variability and change. At the same time there is need to improve agricultural production in East African farming systems. These challenges require a response that integrates improved food security for vulnerable groups with climate adaptation and mitigation of food crop production and supply systems. The adoption of climate smart and ecologically sustainable production methods is essential for improving productivity and resilience of the existing food crop production and supply systems. However, until now there is limited data and information available on the impacts of different climate smart agriculture (CSA) interventions on agricultural production, food security and ecological resilience of the farming systems and larges landscapes. To fill this knowledge and data gap the will to assess the impacts of (large scale) implementation of CSAs on the resilience and ecological sustainability at different scales.