Understanding the distribution and redistribution of water resources in a landscape is paramount to effectively inform the management and governance of water resources. Conversely, to provide sufficient evidence, increase understanding, and explore feasible solutions to a sustainable future, the thesis identifies the research gaps that call for an inter- and transdisciplinary approach. Based on the context of East Africa (a water-scarce region), the thesis demonstrates that there is an urgent need to study the hydrological processes of the elevated forested water towers, under changing climate and complex human-water dynamics. As part of understanding better the human-water dynamics, there is a need to explore participatory approaches to engaging catchment stakeholders, to find feasible solutions to the complex redistribution of water resources and minimize reported water-related conflicts. This can increase an understanding of the distribution of water resources from forested water towers, and redistribution dynamics within the catchment, hence improving the management and governance of water resources.