Water scarcity and floods are serious concerns, particularly in dry regions like Yemen, where indigenous rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems have been a very important source — if not the only — source of water available. This Thesis describes the historical development of indigenous RWH systems and identifies their main categories, benefits, the reasons for their declining use, and the impact of many revived systems worldwide. It is noted that indigenous RWH systems can still play a significant role in ensuring food security, alleviating water shortage and flood hazards, and conserving local heritage and indigenous knowledge. During unstable situations and the lack of public tap water, many people have revived indigenous RWH systems as the current case of Yemen. Easily accessible groundwater and the accompanying role of the government are identified as the main factors in the decline of RWH. The study preformed the site suitability analysis of different indigenous RWH systems using multi criteria analysis.