Many industrial waste and wastewater i.e. dairy, beverage, slaughterhouse wastewater, and food processing waste streams contain appreciable quantities of protein. The research investigates the conversion of proteins in anaerobic conditions, more focussing on the hydrolysis step, effect of environmental/operational factors including pH, (non-)methanogenic conditions, presence of other biopolymers (carbohydrates) and inhibitory compounds during anaerobic digestion process, and retention times of reactor systems. The determination of the kinetic parameters and kinetic constants of the hydrolysis, acidogenesis and methanogenesis as a basis for modelling and design of hydrolysis, production of VFA and/or biogas from these wastewater are presented in the thesis. Finally, the thesis analyses the cost-benefits in terms of technical, economic and environmental aspects of anaerobic treatment of a protein-rich wastewater in a case study in Vietnam.